Jump to content

Hundred-year cleaning. Hoover Vacuum Cleaner History


Priyanka

1,143 views

If you type in "Google Translator" the word "hoover", it will pop up its only meaning in English - "vacuum cleaner". There is nothing to be surprised. A rare manufacturer of household appliances can boast of such a long and interesting history. Why did the Hoover brand become a household name?

Homemade from Ohio

Combine the mechanical brush for cleaning and the flow of air for the first time guessed the British. Industrial design historian Carroll Ganz, in the pages of The Vacuum Cleaner: A History, reports that back in 1850, London companies provided services for blowing dust through windows using steam and hand machines. So cumbersome that they were brought to the buildings in a horse-drawn carriage — such units were in demand right up to the beginning of the 20th century. But as soon as the invention crossed the ocean, how energetic Americans set about improving it. The design was improved so that it could be easily used by one person. In other words, adapted for domestic use.

British vacuum cleaner 1901

British vacuum cleaner 1901

In the summer of 1860, Iowa resident Daniel Hess issued a patent for a compact device made of a movable brush and furs akin to the accordion - the dust drawn by them was deposited inside the water tank. This design did not earn loud fame, but the first step was hard times. In 1869, Aivis McGuffy from Chicago realized that a simple fan was also capable of providing the difference in pressure needed to absorb garbage. Only it was suggested to set it in motion on its own: the faster the user rotated the belt drive, the more actively the device worked. They demanded 25 dollars for such a “simulator” - for those times a large amount.

Later, McGuffy tried to improve the apparatus by transferring it to steam traction, and at the turn of the century, he proposed an electric model. But both initiatives were less successful. Do not think that the development of a vacuum cleaner at the time was engaged in only one person. There was also John Thorman from Missouri with a “carpet renovator,” Melville Bissel from Michigan invented his “mechanical brush”, and Corrin Dufort from Georgia - “dust collector”. Sometimes successful ideas came from where they did not expect - from talented self-taught people who just wanted to come up with something useful. One of these was James Murray Spangler.

Hoover Vacuum Cleaner

Thanks to the invention of Spengler vertical vacuum cleaners have become fashionable in the US

He started with agriculture - he invented a combine harvester and several upgrades to it. Then the attention of James attracted fashionable bikes at the end of the XIX century. To make deals with the manufacturer of bikes, he moved to Ohio, where he got a job as a cleaner at the store of the entrepreneur William Zollinger. Spangler found himself in an unenviable position: the patents he had never enriched the author - and now he, at the age of 59, and even asthma, was busy in the dust from morning to evening.

But even in this situation, the American did not lose his head. He suspected that the reason for his cough was the imperfection of the mechanical brush, which he was given at work. The machine would rather raise dust into the air than clean it. Spengler decided to remake the construction: he took the Bissell brush, the motor from the sewing machine, the wooden soapbox, the bag from the pillowcase and put everything on the handle from the broomstick. The result was a vacuum cleaner, as we would say right now, with vertical parking - and this is convenient to use, and it does not take up much space.

Quote

It sounds simple, but in fact, the assembly of the device took about six months.

But the design turned out to be simple and cheap - in 1908, when Spangler received a patent, in the United States James Kirby's electric vacuum cleaners were already running, only they cost from $85. A simple Ohio cleaner offered an option available to everyone. Without losing time, the inventor borrowed money and opened the company Electric Suction Sweeper Company, where he collected his devices in small batches. But I quickly realized that without proper advertising and a customer base, it would be impossible to get rich. Then he turned to Cousin Susan for help, because her husband was an experienced businessman and leather merchant William Hoover.

Battle of the living rooms and Europe

In 1908, Hoover’s revenues began to fall: Americans suddenly decided that a car was better than a horse, so harness was less and less in demand. Vacuum cleaners are another matter. Having seized upon this idea, William bought a patent from a relative and opened a small workshop for assembling new devices in a leather workshop. They produced only six cars a day, but they also sold by themselves. The head of the company came to the conclusion that it is necessary to radically change the approach to advertising.

Factory and advertising Hoover, the first quarter of the XX century

Factory and advertising Hoover, the first quarter of the XX century

He came up with an economical and at the same time an effective way of selling goods. Placed on the pages of The Saturday Evening Post announcement, offering everyone who wants to free to use a vacuum cleaner for ten days. Who liked the equipment, could buy it, and the disgruntled returned the goods? The venture worked: by 1912, the business embraced not only the United States but also other countries, including pre-revolutionary Russia. It became clear that the promotion of products through the press opened up tremendous opportunities. “Give her a Hoover for Christmas in 1917,” “To be honest, this cleaner is even better than what is needed in most homes,” the newspapers were full of catchy slogans.

And the business flourished. In 1915, the company was renamed Hoover Suction Sweeper to emphasize the merit of William Hoover in winning the market. The boss is not only skilled in advertising but also took care of the introduction of new technologies that were not available to competitors. That is why, under this brand, the first vacuum cleaner with mode switching came out, the 700th model of 1926 was able to clean and knock out the carpet, and in 1930 a compact device for use with one hand appeared - the Dustette. This baby turned out to be incredibly tenacious: some copies were “on the move” even 80 years after graduation. Gradually, the brand became a household name - like a photocopier with us. "Honey, I bought a hover, we will now chuck up the rooms every day. "

The first portable vacuum cleaner

The first portable vacuum cleaner

Technical innovations were accompanied by experiments with style. For example, in 1932, you could buy a real headlamp for your “hover” for $ 5, so that it would light up the carpet during cleaning. "Shows the dirt, which you did not know," - said the advertisement. Illumination took root and for a long time served as a hallmark of the brand. In the 1930s, the collaboration of the Hoover Company and industrial designer Henry Dreyfus began. He acted in the spirit of his time: America was overwhelmed by fashion for everything that was streamlined, which primarily affected the shape of the cars, and then the household appliances.

Quote

Dreyfus revised the traditional approach to the design of vacuum cleaners.

If earlier manufacturers boasted of motors and defiantly exposed them above the brushes, now the mechanical part is closed by a drop-like bakelite casing. The development of the style of the model 150 cost $ 25,000, but the investment paid off many times over. After all, in addition to the appearance, the 1936 novelty was technically advanced: a lightweight magnesium case, a bag full indicator for dust, a two-speed motor, a handle height adjustment, and a folding design. It is not surprising that competitors began to copy some parts and materials of the famous vacuum cleaner. In the US, Hoover fought for living rooms with other manufacturers, including Air-Way, Eureka and Royal, and overseas butted with Swedish Electrolux. But in 1941, the battle for Europe acquired a more specific meaning. The Ohio plant was reoriented to parachute stitching and helmets punching.

Hoover Vacuum Cleaner

Based on the design of the 150 models, Henry Dreyfus developed a whole series of backlit vacuum cleaners

Immediately after the victory over Germany and Japan, Hoover celebrated the 30th anniversary of the founding of the company. With the assistance of the same Henry Dreyfus model 27 was released, and in addition to the 25th developed the concept of interchangeable nozzles. The kit was called the Model 25 Cleaning Ensemble. It turned out simple and convenient: during cleaning, an additional hose was connected to the vacuum cleaner, and to it - any tip to choose from. “Cleans everything. Carpets, linoleum, mattresses, clothes, car salons. This is the best method of removing dog hair”, - this is how the 1945 advertisement described the merits of the novelty.

New Horizons

In the middle of the XX century art Nouveau and Neoclassicism, which was inextricably linked design Hoover vacuum cleaners, began to become obsolete. The audience needed new solutions — not only externally, but also constructively. The answer to this challenge was the use of original colors, shapes, materials, and technologies. Metallic and gray gave way to more bright colors of technology. In 1950 St has launched the first "Hoover" with rubberized flexible hose Veriflex — invention not only revolutionary but and more reliable, than rag braid. A spherical model Constellation 1954, without wheels, moved on an air cushion.

Three years later, Henry Dreyfus completed the last order for Hoover and switched to other areas, but this did not stop the creative search within the company. The next important decision was the location of the motor behind the dust collector, and not in front of it - this is how the Dial-A-Matic vertical vacuum cleaner, launched in 1963, was arranged. The idea was simple: if in the previous constructions the dust first passed the fan and only then it settled in the bag, now the blades blew out clean air.

Quote

Until now, vacuum cleaners of different brands use the same principle: the motor is behind the dust collector, and not in front of it.

Engineers of the company did not forget about the previous developments. So, in a portable Hoover Pixie, the Dustette idea was developed: the device could be worn around the house, slung over a shoulder strap, and used four tips for cleaning. And in Hoover Portable, Pixie compactness and motor layout from Dial-A-Matic were combined. In the summer of 1969, they released the model 1170 with the “self-propelled” Powerdrive system. To roll such a vacuum cleaner in the off state, it took an effort, but it was enough to start the engine, as a special mechanism made the movement of the machine easy.

Hoover Iron, 1960s

Hoover Iron, the 1960s

In parallel, the manufacturer has adjusted the release of other equipment. In the 60s, a round red logo flaunted on toasters, electric knife, blenders, mixers, kettles, irons, washing machines, refrigerators — on a variety of household items. The company, which once produced six vacuum cleaners a day, turned into a huge company with branches in the USA, Canada, Australia, and the UK.

Thanks for a good deal. As early as 1993, the Hoover Trading and Hoover UK divisions merged into the Hoover European Appliances Group. Two years later, the group was acquired by Candy, the Italian company of the Fumagalli family, known for the household appliances assortment. New business owners received the right to use the brand "Hoover" in the countries of the former USSR, and at the same time set up the production of washing machines in Kirov. Now and vacuum cleaners with vertical parking, which are consistently associated with the American style, are sold here. Among modern models, there is a wireless Hoover Rhapsody with two motors: one ensures the suction of dust and the other cleans the filter. Another successor to the traditions of the famous brand is the maneuverable Hoover H-FREE.

0 Comments


Recommended Comments

There are no comments to display.

Guest
Add a comment...

×   Pasted as rich text.   Paste as plain text instead

  Only 75 emoji are allowed.

×   Your link has been automatically embedded.   Display as a link instead

×   Your previous content has been restored.   Clear editor

×   You cannot paste images directly. Upload or insert images from URL.

Loading...
  • Blog Entries

    • By M. Konwar in Film
         0
      Square Enix published a translation of the session of answers to investors ' questions about its financial results in the first half of the current fiscal year. Chief Executive Yosuke Matsuda confirmed that sales of "The Avengers" were below expectations and that the action role-playing movie has not yet paid off its production budget.

      Earlier it became known that Square Enix sold only 60% of the planned circulation of "The Avengers". It is estimated to have a budget of between $170 million to $190 million, with initial sales of only about 3 million copies. Because of this, the company's HD division lost approximately $ 62 million in the second quarter.
      Matsuda noted that if The Avengers hadn't been released last quarter, the HD division would have remained in the black. However, the losses were caused not only by the non-recouped development costs, but also by the marketing campaign, which suffered due to delays caused by the coronavirus pandemic.
      That being said, Square Enix still intends to make it profitable with post-release support. Last week, the developers announced that Kate Bishop will appear in The Avengers on December 8th.
    • By M. Konwar in Film
         0
      At a recent panel dedicated to "Rick and Morty," the authors revealed that they are already working on the seventh season of the animated series.
      According to writer Dan Harmon, he can no longer clearly track plot milestones — he even threatened to unwittingly reveal spoilers for the fifth or sixth season. Harmon also hinted that the" space version " of Beth will return in the future and somehow affect the overall plot.
      Previously, the Adult Swim channel swooped in on 70 episodes of the project from the creators, and so far the show has just reached the season 4 finale - this happened at the end of May.
      There is no exact date for the premiere of the sequel yet.
    • By M. Konwar in Film
         0
      In a recent interview, Zack Snyder said that for his version of "Justice League" in total, no more than 4-5 minutes were completed.
      Specifically, we are talking about new scenes, for which the director attracted most of the original cast. The numbers were so small because all the other material needed to complete the tape was already in the hands of the director - it only needed to be finalized. Simply put, the film's running time will still be four hours.
      He also revealed that this time there was no "focus group", and the tape will be made without any interference with the author's vision. By the way, in his version of the Joker, to the image of which Jared Leto returned again, will be slightly different from the image from "Suicide Squad".
      Snyder's Justice League will premiere on HBO Max in 2021.
    • By M. Konwar in Health
         0
      Distortion of science for political and economic ends has prevented the allocation of needed resources to stop the spread of dangerous pathogens. This places all of society as a whole at risk, but exacting an insufferable toll of death and disability on our front-line healthcare workers, along with our most vulnerable populations. COVID-19 has demonstrated how dangerous this scenario has become.

      We have seen the United States top officials publicly flaunt the wearing of masks and use substandard infection control practices.  A super-spreader event was even created at the White House’s Rose Garden when rapid testing was used to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2. This type of test is known for high false negatives especially with trying to detect asymptomatic carriers. And a security guard for the president was seen wearing an N95-mask with an exhalation value, a setup for spreading the disease.
      There also have been reports that the federal government has impeded or mitigated CDC recommendations for cruise ship No-Sail orders, and to pressure the CDC regarding school openings.  Having consistent scientifically based messaging on a national level is of utmost importance. The messaging in the United States can be characterized as nothing short of bizarre.
      The CDC has flip-flopped on guidance regarding the use of masks on public transportation, the testing of asymptomatic carriers, and was late to stress the importance of spread with viral aerosols – too many of our buildings are not healthy. Significant infrastructural changes are needed to allow for proper social distancing, increase in ventilation, and air sanitization. Infrastructure upgrades are expensive and so far the United States does not have the political will to actualize these changes.
      Needless to say, it is a warning that the abandonment of scientific evidence-based recommendations has all but stymied effective public health responses in the United States.
      Health Care Worker and Patient Safety is of Paramount Importance
      One of the worst aspects of the United States’ response is the failure to provide adequate personnel protective equipment (PPE). The United States’ federal government has not invoked the Defense Production Act to assure an adequate supply of N95-masks for our workers. These masks require a key ingredient ‘melt blown textile’ which is difficult to manufacture. Relying solely on the free market is ill-advised since, similar to the N1H1 pandemic, industry is reluctant to retool for manufacture when they may not recoup their startup costs. This reluctance has its roots in the ideology and the desire of leaders not to create excess mandates and government overreach.
      Some feel the delay in recognition of aerosolization as a major mode of spread of SAR-CoV-2 was related to the paucity of N95-masks and the desire not to alarm workers. As of this writing, N95-masks are still in short supply.
      The impact that this lack of basic protective gear has had may never be known, for no one is counting SARS-CoV-2 infections and deaths in front-line workers.  A lack of mandatory reporting of work-related illness has resulted in incomplete reporting on healthcare personnel; the number of healthcare workers who died from COVID-19 could be between 752 to above 4000. The bottom line is, we need to do better.
      We have stressed in the past the importance of establishing a surveillance system and regular screening of healthcare workers for endemic dangerous pathogens and those pathogens which have frequent outbreaks in a facility, including pathogens CRE, Clostridioides difficile, MRSA, and SARS-CoV-2.
      Healthcare workers also need to have an economic and healthcare safety net for both themselves and their families. Paid sick leave is of paramount importance, since it is not ethical to have a healthcare worker making the untenable choice between the safety of patients and placing food on their family’s table.  Acquisitions of dangerous pathogens that occur during an outbreak or pandemic should qualify the worker for presumptive disability.
      Additionally, no one is counting patients who contract COVID-19 in hospital settings. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ definition for a SARS-CoV-2 hospital-acquired infection is unfortunately next to useless; “Total current inpatients with the onset of suspected or laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 fourteen or more days after admission for a condition other than COVID-19.” Unfortunately, this definition is next to useless.
      For many patients, the greatest chance of catching SARS-CoV-2 is on the day of admission, due to being placed in a freshly turned over room and possibly going through the emergency room for initial treatment. Thus it is unlikely that few SARS-CoV-2 HAIs will be captured. The most accurate metric would be a diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 acquisition which would occur 5 days after admission, including those which present after discharge. This metric would balance false positive and negative results and give a much better estimate of overall system performance. This mitigation of SARS-CoV-2 data is reminiscent of past pandemics where countries have a long history of hiding the numbers, as opposed to reporting them and correcting the problem.
      The Need to Take Care of Disparate Populations, Even the Elderly
      Initially, the virus emerged in the northwest region of the United States and devastated Nursing Homes where infectious disease regulations were all too lax. In 2019, the CDC attempted to strengthen infection prevention in nursing homes by enacting the strategy of Enhanced Barrier Precautions.. ‘Enhanced’ a  deceptive word, since these precautions are less stringent than Contact Precautions (these precautions were being advocated for the control of the CDC’s ‘Urgent Threats’ of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and Candida Auris and can also be applied to patients colonized with MRSA). Recommendations for Enhanced Barrier Precautions state: “Residents are not restricted to their rooms and do not require placement in a private room.”
      Enhanced Barrier Precautions allow carriers to participate in nursing home activities and only require healthcare workers to implement contact precautions for high-risk activities, but even low-risk activities, such as passing meds, occur so frequently that one would expect frequent healthcare worker contamination.
      These precautions do not appear to be based upon how the MDRO spreads, but instead on avoiding more stringent and resource-intense strategies.
      Such strategies would include: Healthcare worker screening and availability of abundant PPE, along with determining the patient’s microbiome, and if dangerous pathogens are present, decolonization, and as a last resort cohorting patients with similar pathogens in dedicated facilities. Pathogens do not care about politics or the needs of the individual, they are genetically programmed to spread.
      Conclusions
      Dangerous pathogens are genetically programmed to spread. Strategies need to be based upon the pathogen and not the political expediency of our leaders or to lessen the economic impact on our healthcare system. The COVID-19 pandemic has taught us the need for public support and embracement of scientifically based public health strategies to stop the spread of dangerous pathogens (proper building ventilation, widespread testing, social distancing, wearing masks, and hand hygiene). These strategies can be expensive to implement and may cause a severe short-term economic burden but are the fastest path to a full economic recovery.
      Whether one deals with MRSA or COVID-19, screening, and decolonization or self-isolation of healthcare workers is of utmost importance. Their health, the health of their families along with their patients depend upon it.
       
      This post is by Dr. Kevin Kavanagh, and originally appeared on the BMC blog network.
    • By Priyanka in Food
         0
      Flax seeds are an amazing superfood that combines a huge variety of different nutrients and is useful for all body systems. Even in ancient Greece, a decoction of Flaxseed was used as an anti-inflammatory agent, and for more than two thousand years, doctors have strongly recommended adding it to the diet. What is so useful flax seeds and how best to use them in food, we tell in our material.

      What are the benefits of flax seeds?
      Flax seeds contain the plant compound linamarin - it evenly envelops the walls of the stomach, creating a protective film on it that prevents harmful toxins from being absorbed, and protects the stomach mucosa from ulcers and gastritis. In addition, the high concentration of omega-3 and -6 fatty acids in flaxseed significantly increases the elasticity of blood vessels and heart muscle, strengthens them, and helps in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Even if you don't have heart problems right now, regular consumption of flax seeds reduces the risk of them appearing in the future.

      Flaxseed is a source of antioxidant compounds. They protect body cells from free radical damage and have powerful anti-inflammatory effects. Antioxidants are the real elixir of youth: they nourish the skin from the inside, prevent the signs of aging and hyperpigmentation and protect the skin from the harmful effects of ultraviolet rays.
      Flax seeds are rich in magnesium and phosphorus, which are essential for the proper functioning of the brain and nervous system. They increase concentration and performance and improve memory. A number of active substances in flaxseed strengthen bones, muscles, and tendons, prevent respiratory diseases, and restore the acid-base balance of the body.
      What's more, flax seeds are essential in your diet if you are looking to lose weight. They help burn visceral fat, and due to their high nutritional value, they provide long-term satiety and significantly reduce the risk of overeating.

      How to add flax seeds to your diet?
      The most important thing: it is useless to add whole flax seeds to food - the hard shell of the seed is beyond the strength of our stomach, which means that not a single nutrient will be absorbed by the body. The seeds can be crushed, or they can be soaked in warm water for 1-2 hours (then the shell will become soft and easily digested, and useful substances will enter the body).

      Further, in chopped or soaked form, flax can be added anywhere - here you are limited only by your imagination. Flax seeds are a great addition to your morning porridge, smoothie, or avocado toast. They can be sprinkled on salads, vegetables, and meat dishes, added to cream soups and stews.
×
×
  • Create New...

Important Information

We have placed cookies on your device to help make this website better. You can adjust your cookie settings, otherwise we'll assume you're okay to continue.