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  • Site structure: How to create a proper website structure

    Each site needs a certain construction. Otherwise, it will be just a collection of pages and blog posts. Your users need a clear system to navigate your website, to navigate from one page to another.

    And Google uses your site structure to determine which content is important and which content is less important. In this guide, we'll tell you everything you need to know about the structure of the site.

    Table of Contents

    Why is the structure of your site?

    Structuring your website is crucial for both usability and search. Many sites lack a system to direct visitors to the product they are looking for. In addition, having a clear site hierarchy leads to a better understanding of Google robots, so it is very important for your SEO.

    1 Important for ease of use

    The structure of your website is of great importance to the User eXperience (UX) on your website. If visitors can find the products and information they are looking for, the likelihood of them becoming customers will increase.

    In other words, you should help them navigate your website/store easily. The good information architecture of the site will only help in this.

    Navigation should be easy. You must categorize your messages and products so that they are easy to find. A new visitor should instantly understand what products you are selling or what your website is about.

    2 Important for SEO

    The logical construction of a website or online store gives more chances to take a better place in the search results. Here are three main reasons for the additional features:

    1. This helps the search engine "understand" your website

    Structuring your website will give search engine robots important tips on where to find the most appropriate content. The structure of your website will tell search engines what your website is about and what you sell. It also helps the search engine find and index content for specific products.


    Therefore, a good structure can lead to an increase in the rating on Google and Yandex.

    2. The competent structure does not allow you to compete with your own content

    You may have similar content on your site. Perhaps you write a lot about SEO. You may have multiple blog posts about the structure of the site (each of which deals with a different aspect). Therefore, the search engine will not know which one is the most important.

    This way you will compete with your own pages for the highest ranking in the SERP. You must tell the web spiders which page you think is most important. This requires a good construction of internal links and taxonomy structure, it is necessary to make all these pages work for you, not against.

    3. Required in case of changes on your website

    The products you sell in your store probably change over time. The content you write also changes. A new collection will be added as the old one will be sold. Or you have decided that outdated information should disappear from your site.

    You don't want the search to show outdated products or articles.


    This will be easier to do if your site has a clear structure.

    How to set up an orderly structure of your website

    So, how do you plan to put in order the hierarchy of the site? First, we'll explain how the perfect site structure should look, and then show you how to achieve this for your own site.

    The ideal structure of the website

    The structure of your site should look like a pyramid. At the top of the pyramid is your home page, and below the home page are several categories. For larger sites, you should make subcategories or custom taxonomies (more on that later). Within categories and subcategories, there will be any number of posts on their pages or product pages.

    The division of your pages into categories

    If you have not yet divided blog posts or product pages on your site into several categories, you definitely need to do it and even better to do it at once. Don't forget to add these categories to the main menu of your website.

    What values should be the category

    Make sure that all categories are roughly the same. If there is too much material in one group because you are blogging on a specific topic, you need to divide it into two other categories.


    A good rule of thumb for the required size of categorization is that no category is twice the size of any other.

    If you have one such topic, splitting it into two separate parts will result in a more accurate reflection of the content on your website.


    Note that if your category name is reflected in the permanent link structure on your website, you should make sure that the URLs are redirected properly after the category is split.

    Internal Linking Structure

    The binding structure is of great importance. Each page at the top of the pyramid must reference specific subpages.

    Conversely, all subpages must reference the page at the top of the pyramid.

    At the top of your pyramid should be important content for you (articles with a cornerstone), and it should be articles you refer to, from all your materials.

    If you combine pages that are closely related to each other in content, you increase the possibility of a good ranking. This method of building internal links will help search engines to calculate the main pages for each object.

    Taxonomy and tags

    There are two standard ways to organize: you can use the above categories (which will give you a pyramid structure) and you can use tags. For the site will be very useful to add tags. Tags and proper classification of the material will give your site a certain relationship (at least Google it helps to navigate).

    The difference between categories and tags is in the device. Categories are the hierarchy, you can have subcategories and sub-categories, whereas tags do not have this structure.


    Categories are the content of your website and tags are the zip code. Is that clearer?


    Don't create too many tags. If every post or article gets another new unique tag, you will achieve nothing. Make sure that the tags are used more than once or twice. They need to group items by a specific label.

    Make sure your tags are accessible to visitors, preferably at the bottom of each article. They help to expand the topic of the material.

    Corner (cornerstone) content

    Material pages, which are important, I call a material with a cornerstone (Cornerstone content). Cornerstone articles are the most important articles on your website. The content of these pages is content that accurately reflects your business or the mission of your business.

    As we discussed earlier, articles with a cornerstone should be relatively high in your site's structure, focusing on the most "top" and competitive keywords.

    I recommend thinking about the four specific pages you would like to show the world to tell about your website or company: these should be the main, most important articles. In most cases, the home page will link to these articles.

    Websites must have at least one or two articles optimized for your keyword and a maximum of eight to ten. If you want to write more than ten such informative articles, you should start a second website.

    Category pages or tag pages can also help focus on the mission or most important products of your website or company. If you want to optimize your category pages to become the cornerstone of your content, it's important to provide amazing introductory content.

    You should ensure that this category page gives a compelling overview of the subject and motivates visitors to read even more articles in this category on your sites.

    Practical tips and quick wins

    The structure created must be dynamic. Over time, your business will change, and of course, the structure of the site should reflect these changes. If you don't think about the hierarchy of your website on a regular basis, it can grow into a monstrous collection of pages. Your pages or products over time will no longer be suitable for existing navigation.

    Delete and redirect!

    Many online stores sell different collections of products (clothes, shoes, food, services) every season. The old goods will eventually be sold out. And if you are not going to sell the same product, again and again, you will have to delete the corresponding page.

    Technologies are constantly evolving, and it happens that the article material is irretrievably outdated, delete this page!

    It is quite possible that you have been a valuable reference that is no longer needed, page. To use these links, even if the page no longer exists, you must redirect the URL.

    It's not that hard to set up page redirects. Preferably, you should redirect the old URL with a 301 redirect to the product that replaced the previous product or to the linked page if there is no replacement.

    This can be a specific product category page or, in a pinch, your home page. Thus, an outdated page will no longer interfere with the structure of your site.

    Evaluate your menu

    When your business goals or website change, the menu should change as well. When you start to restructure your site, it would be good to get a visual representation (such as an organogram).

    Start with your desired (one or two levels) menu and see if you can fit into it pages created over the years. You will find that some pages are still relevant, but most are not suitable for your new menu.

    No problem! Remove them, just make sure that they are not referenced by linked pages and that they are not in the Sitemap files either. Perhaps the organogram will reveal problems in the structure of your favorite site.

    Rethink the classification of your site's menu

    Creating an overview of your categories, subcategories, and products or articles will help you revise your site's taxonomy. You may have noticed that one product category received more pages than others. Or maybe you've written a lot of material about one particular subject and little about other topics.

    If one category grows noticeably larger than the other, the pyramid of your site can go out of balance. Think about dividing this category up into several different ones. And if several product lines have information about themselves, less than others, they should be combined. Try to create eight to ten top-level categories (maximum) to keep the structure balanced. Don't forget to redirect from deleted pages!

    It is necessary to inform every search engine about it. It is unlikely that you have created your site map manually, so I will update it with the changed structure of the website and resubmit it in Google Search Console and Yandex webmaster.

    Duplicate content

    You already know that the same content can be displayed on several pages of your site.

    As a reader, you don't mind: you will get the material you were looking for. But the search engine must choose what that one page and show in the search results for a specific query. Well, they don't want to show the same content twice.

    What's more, when third-party websites link to your product from the first URL and other sites link to the second URL at that time. Moreover, these duplicates themselves link to the same top-level page, your rating for the relevant keyword will be just unfairly inflated.

    The structure of the site, conclusions

    As we can see, there are several serious reasons why the structure of the site is important.

    A good site structure helps both your visitors and search engines navigate the site.

    This makes it easier to implement changes and prevents competition with your own content.

    Therefore, use the tips and tricks of this guide to check and improve your site structure in a timely manner.

    Edited by DeZire

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      There are many opportunities to optimize your e-commerce site, this list of 27 tips will help to customize the online store and increase profits. The list does not cover absolutely all the possibilities of getting the best results, but if you at least start to optimize all the points mentioned in this article, your online store is sure to work fine.
      Table of Contents
      1. Branding 2. Forced call to action 3. Recommended products 4. Search option 5. About us 6. Cart 7. Participation 8. Categories 9. Introductory content on category pages 10. Product thumbnails 11. Calls for action in reviews 12. Products pictures 13. Product description 14. Schema.org 15. OpenGraph and Twitter cards 16. Be very honest with the prices 17. Product reviews 18. Related products 19. Call to action on your product page 20. Payment option 21. SSL and privacy protection 22. Warehouse or not? 23. Do not require an account. 24. Mobile version of the online store 25. Speed 26. The expiry time of a Cookie 27. Meta description 1. Branding
      The first thing you should know is that you should always use consistent branding. Make sure your brand or logo is clearly visible on the home page and in the header of your website. This creates trust and helps to build and promote business, allows you to increase the recognition of your business, both offline and on the pages of search engine results.
      2. Forced call to action
      Your home page needs a compelling call to action. It may change over time, for example, if you want to promote certain products or seasonal promotions, such as Black Friday sales. However, you need to be sure that they are always clearly visible and that they meet the needs and expectations of your visitors.
      3. Recommended products
      You also need to reserve a prominent spot on the homepage for other products offered or something similar: usually your main products or items you are currently selling. This will provide an immediate start of shopping for visitors, telling them that they are in the right online store.
      4. Search option
      Each online store with more than 20 products must have a search option. Make sure you place the search option in a visible location, as it will be convenient for your visitors to navigate. The position of the search bar, any visitor should find in an instant.
      5. About us
      I like to find out about the company I'm buying from. What is their history? What motivates them? If we share the same values and beliefs, I will most likely return to this store and buy more products from them. Adding a page about us and maybe a photo of the team will help create a connection between your company and your customers.
      6. Cart
      No matter how noble your intentions are (see # 5), in most cases your main goal is to make as much money as possible and the money is made through your shopping cart. For this reason, your shopping cart should always be accessible and visible - do not force visitors to look for it. I would also recommend adding the number of products in the cart to the cart icon itself. This will help people not to forget whether they have added items to the cart.
      7. Participation
      Newsletters and social media are the easiest ways to get back visits from your customers, so be sure to pay attention to your social profiles and subscribe to your website's newsletter.
      At a minimum, add social profiles to the bottom of the page (use icons, links, social widgets), but if there is space left in the top block, it's also a great place for them. Offer your newsletter on the sidebar and use the scroll boxes to draw attention to your subscription. A good sale always helps to motivate people to sign up.
      8. Categories
      How you set up your categories and make them available to visitors is important. Categories help visitors get to different product groups faster, especially those who haven't decided which specific products to buy.
      Huge online stores have a large list of categories (or departments), but the product categories are made as clear as possible. This has a lot to do with naming these categories and the logical way to use subcategories. Put yourself in the shoes of your visitors and walk through the categories of your store. Do they make sense? Are these conditions clear to the visitor? If so, you are on the right track.
      9. Introductory content on category pages
      Besides the fact that you clearly indicate the name of your category, make sure you add a good introduction to the pages of their categories. This introduction is similar to the glue bringing together the collection of products on this page. This is useful when defining a page theme, especially for search engines.
      10. Product thumbnails
      In most cases, product images say more than a thousand words. This is especially true for those pages that simply don't have room for a thousand words about a single product, such as your category page or internal search results pages.
      Adding a stunning miniature image of the dress or pictures will increase the number of clicks on this page. Good thumbnail images make it easy for visitors to choose from a wide range of products in a category or on search results pages.
      11. Calls for action in reviews
      In addition to thumbnails for both internal search pages and category pages, your review pages also need a call-to-action for each product, which means that a visitor can add an item to the cart directly from the category or search results page. Although this is not always possible to implement, you should do it where you can. I know online stores that allow you to choose the color and size of jeans, for example, without having to go to the product page. Select, click "Add to cart" and proceed to checkout. It's easy ?
      12. Products pictures
      Don't forget to add great product images to every page of your product. They should be scalable and give several types of goods offered. Remember that even the file name and ALT text to the image is relevant for SEO.
      13. Product description
      Optimizing category pages is often much easier than optimizing all the pages in your product. If you sell bolts, screws, and nails, adding a unique description to each page is a big problem. If you need your product page on its own to take up space, be sure to spend some time and effort optimizing your product description for the product name and/or article number.
      14. Schema.org
      We recommend adding data schema.org on the pages of your product to improve the technical components of the site. Add at least schema.org/Product I schema.org/Offer, and see if you can extend this to more detailed diagrams. Markup Schema.org it will help search engines and, for example, Google Shopping better understands the content of your page.
      15. OpenGraph and Twitter cards
      In addition to the data, schema.org be sure to add OpenGraph and Twitter Cards. They guarantee that when you publish your website materials on social networks, they will be displayed as attractive as possible.
      16. Be very honest with the prices
      I can't stress it enough: be truthful about your prices. If you then increase the value of the goods by adding a payment for delivery or due to tax, later in the ordering process, this will have unpleasant consequences, and buyers can refuse to buy.
      Be extremely careful with these extra costs for buyers (if any) from the start.
      17. Product reviews
      Building trust is good for all online stores. Real product reviews help a lot in this. One thing I would recommend for websites that include user reviews is to copy a couple of these reviews to your own site. Including third-party reviews, such as a widget, would be a great solution. Add them next to your call to action for best results.
      18. Related products
      When you have a suitable product, offer it. If someone buys an iPhone 10 from your site, they'll probably need a case, and even want to buy a pair of expensive wireless headphones (expensive, right?!). But the client can take it easier when he just paid the full price for a new iPhone! Adding the related products section or the "other customers also bought" section to your product page will trigger sales UPS. We strongly recommend adding them.
      19. Call to action on your product page
      To start the purchase, the visitor must click "Add to cart" on the page of your product. Don't hide this button! The number of stores that accidentally mask the "add to cart" button is less than it was before, but I still encourage you to take a close look at this button and make sure it stands out. This is especially true when you also have a secondary call to action, such as "Add to wish list." Make sure the Add to cart button is highlighted more than others and is the first and largest button on your product page.
      20. Payment option
      As in the case of paragraph 16, this checklist for e-commerce, the issue of payment comes to the prevention of surprises. By taking a few complicated steps and getting to the completion of the purchase process, only to find out that your favorite payment option is not available. We recommend that you display your accepted payment methods to customers before they get to the payment process itself.
      21. SSL and privacy protection
      Here's one important thing in building trust: if your site has an SSL certificate, then there will be such a beautiful green lock in the address bar of the visitors ' browser, and you additionally inform them that purchases are made in a secure environment. These things will allow the customer to confidently write down their home address, credit card details, or any other personal information you ask them for.
      The relationship with other well-known companies in the field of information security will also have a positive impact on the credibility of your business.

      22. Warehouse or not?
      These days the availability of the product and stimulates sales. In online stores around the world, I want to buy my things where they will be sent to me tomorrow, or even today after the payment.
      If you tell me the goods are in stock, I'm more likely to buy them. It's not just about competition, it's about managing expectations. If your site tells me that something is not in stock, I still decide to buy in your store knowing that it will have to wait a bit.
      But if I buy in your store and I don't get the product within three weeks because it's out of stock, I'll go buy somewhere else next time.
      23. Do not require an account.
      Always allow buyers to buy without forcing them to create an account. I believe that it is bad practice for a customer to create an account. This is only true if creating an account gives the customer benefits such as simple license renewals, managing recurring payments, or the like. These are tasks I'd like to do in a secure environment, so I wouldn't mind creating an account.
      But when I buy clothes, and other consumer goods, I consider the creation of an account on the site optional.
      24. Mobile version of the online store
      Don't forget mobile users. The user interface of your mobile website should attract as much attention as the user interface of your website on personal computers.
      25. Speed
      This refers to the speed of loading pages of your site on your PC and mobile device. Nowadays people are used to fast Internet everywhere. However, there are plenty of locations around the world, with a crappy mobile connection and a small amount of data being transferred. In addition, Google tends to rank faster sites better, which is another reason to seek to improve the maximum speed of the site.
      26. The expiry time of a Cookie
      Probably the term "cookie expiration time" is too narrow for what I'm trying to say.
      The ability to store unpaid items in your shopping cart for a long time is one of the factors why it is better to use longer cookie expiration dates for your shopping cart.
      27. Meta description
      On e-Commerce sites, meta descriptions serve a very important purpose. In many cases, the correct meta-description forms a short excerpt (snippet) which is displayed by search engines in the results of the request and serves to obtain primary information about the content of the website page.
      Be sure to add a product-oriented meta description to your product pages so that search engines use the correct text in their search results!
      This list can make a hundred tips, and I'm sure as an online store owner, you can come up with even more. Feel free to share your tips in the comments or on social networks. I'm looking forward to them!
    • By Priyanka
      Most Internet traffic is now sent over an HTTPS connection, making it "secure." In fact, Google now warns that non-encrypted HTTP sites are simply "not protected."
      So why are there so many malware, phishing, and other dangers on the Internet?
      How the inscription in the address bar can be misleading about the security of the site
      Chrome used to display the word "Secure" and a green padlock in the address bar when you visited a website using HTTPS. In modern versions, Chrome just has a green lock icon, without the word " Safe."
      Partly because HTTPS is now considered a basic standard for an updated browser. Everything should be secure by default, so Chrome only warns you that the connection is "Unsafe" when accessing the site via an outdated HTTP connection.

      The word "Safe" also disappeared because it was misleading. It looked like Chrome vouched for the content of the site as if everything on that page was "safe." But this is not the case. A" secure " HTTPS site can be filled with malware or be a fake phishing site.
      The https encryption Protocol, while remarkable, doesn't just make the connection secure. It is similar to the standard HTTP Protocol for connecting to websites, but with a level of secure encryption.
      This encryption prevents people from tracking your data when it is transmitted to a particular site and stops man-in-the-middle attacks. For example, no one can track the payment details you send to the website.
      In short, HTTPS ensures that the connection between you and this particular site is secure. No one can eavesdrop or interfere. That's all, it doesn't mean that the site is "safe".
      HTTPS works great and all websites should use it. This means that you are using a secure connection to this particular website, that the website operator has purchased a certificate and installed encryption to secure the connection
      For example, a dangerous website full of malicious downloads may communicate with you via HTTPS. All this means that the website and the files you upload are sent over a secure connection, but they may not be secure.
      Similarly, a criminal can buy a domain, for example, "bankorosia.com", obtain an SSL encryption certificate for it, and emulate the real website of the respective Bank.
      It will be a phishing site with a" security " lock, but that means you only have a secure connection to this fraudulent site.
      The role of HTTPS is still great
      Although the phrase "secure site" has been used by browsers for years, HTTPS sites are not really "secure".
      Websites that switch to HTTPS help solve some problems, but do not stop causing damage from malware, phishing, spam, attacks on vulnerable sites, or other online scams.
      The transition to the new Hypertext Transfer Protocol, still great for the Internet! According to Google statistics, more than 80% of web pages downloaded to Chrome from Windows are downloaded via HTTPS.
      This transition makes it difficult for criminals to intercept personal data, especially on public Wi-Fi networks.
      It also greatly minimizes the chance that you will encounter a "man in the middle" attack on public Wi-Fi or another network.
      For example, say you download an installation file .exe programs, from a website, while connecting to a public Wi-Fi network. If you are connected to a non-secure, now, HTTP Protocol, the Wi-FI operator can interrupt the download and send you another, malicious one .exe file.
      If you are connected to HTTPS, the connection is secure, no one will be able to interfere with the download of your software.
  • Blog Entries

    • By M. Konwar in Film
      Square Enix published a translation of the session of answers to investors ' questions about its financial results in the first half of the current fiscal year. Chief Executive Yosuke Matsuda confirmed that sales of "The Avengers" were below expectations and that the action role-playing movie has not yet paid off its production budget.

      Earlier it became known that Square Enix sold only 60% of the planned circulation of "The Avengers". It is estimated to have a budget of between $170 million to $190 million, with initial sales of only about 3 million copies. Because of this, the company's HD division lost approximately $ 62 million in the second quarter.
      Matsuda noted that if The Avengers hadn't been released last quarter, the HD division would have remained in the black. However, the losses were caused not only by the non-recouped development costs, but also by the marketing campaign, which suffered due to delays caused by the coronavirus pandemic.
      That being said, Square Enix still intends to make it profitable with post-release support. Last week, the developers announced that Kate Bishop will appear in The Avengers on December 8th.
    • By Priyanka in Food
      Flax seeds are an amazing superfood that combines a huge variety of different nutrients and is useful for all body systems. Even in ancient Greece, a decoction of Flaxseed was used as an anti-inflammatory agent, and for more than two thousand years, doctors have strongly recommended adding it to the diet. What is so useful flax seeds and how best to use them in food, we tell in our material.

      What are the benefits of flax seeds?
      Flax seeds contain the plant compound linamarin - it evenly envelops the walls of the stomach, creating a protective film on it that prevents harmful toxins from being absorbed, and protects the stomach mucosa from ulcers and gastritis. In addition, the high concentration of omega-3 and -6 fatty acids in flaxseed significantly increases the elasticity of blood vessels and heart muscle, strengthens them, and helps in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Even if you don't have heart problems right now, regular consumption of flax seeds reduces the risk of them appearing in the future.

      Flaxseed is a source of antioxidant compounds. They protect body cells from free radical damage and have powerful anti-inflammatory effects. Antioxidants are the real elixir of youth: they nourish the skin from the inside, prevent the signs of aging and hyperpigmentation and protect the skin from the harmful effects of ultraviolet rays.
      Flax seeds are rich in magnesium and phosphorus, which are essential for the proper functioning of the brain and nervous system. They increase concentration and performance and improve memory. A number of active substances in flaxseed strengthen bones, muscles, and tendons, prevent respiratory diseases, and restore the acid-base balance of the body.
      What's more, flax seeds are essential in your diet if you are looking to lose weight. They help burn visceral fat, and due to their high nutritional value, they provide long-term satiety and significantly reduce the risk of overeating.

      How to add flax seeds to your diet?
      The most important thing: it is useless to add whole flax seeds to food - the hard shell of the seed is beyond the strength of our stomach, which means that not a single nutrient will be absorbed by the body. The seeds can be crushed, or they can be soaked in warm water for 1-2 hours (then the shell will become soft and easily digested, and useful substances will enter the body).

      Further, in chopped or soaked form, flax can be added anywhere - here you are limited only by your imagination. Flax seeds are a great addition to your morning porridge, smoothie, or avocado toast. They can be sprinkled on salads, vegetables, and meat dishes, added to cream soups and stews.
    • By M. Konwar in Film
      At a recent panel dedicated to "Rick and Morty," the authors revealed that they are already working on the seventh season of the animated series.
      According to writer Dan Harmon, he can no longer clearly track plot milestones — he even threatened to unwittingly reveal spoilers for the fifth or sixth season. Harmon also hinted that the" space version " of Beth will return in the future and somehow affect the overall plot.
      Previously, the Adult Swim channel swooped in on 70 episodes of the project from the creators, and so far the show has just reached the season 4 finale - this happened at the end of May.
      There is no exact date for the premiere of the sequel yet.
    • By Sophia in Culture
      Wedding is considered to be one of the most important event in life. Many prepare for it in a special way, and some begin training in just a few weeks. There are families who do not celebrate this event, and there are those who celebrate in the family circle. If we talk about Turkmenistan, in national families this event takes place in a special way. Turkmen wedding is a long-awaited event in the life of every girl of this nationality.
      If the city residents celebrate it in more modest conditions, the wedding takes place in auls in all traditions. The Turkmen observe all the conditions for the celebration.
      Ancient traditions

      A long time ago the Turkmen wedding according to traditions and customs was a little different from the modern one. Marriages were concluded when the bride and groom were at an early age. The parents themselves chose the pair, so matchmaking was not, everything was already decided for them. The Council of relatives, which was called "genesh toy", decided on the date of the wedding and the conditions of the celebration.
      Most often, the wedding tried to do on Monday, because this day was considered the most successful. The heralds - "Darcy" - was announced in almost all the plain on this festive event. After that, the next day, the most respected woman in the village came to the bride to start sewing wedding clothes. Also gathered all the necessary things for the future life of the young: carpets, household items and more. In order to sew a dress, also selected a special day.
      But the fabric on the sewing it was supposed to deliver from the house of the groom. Open the dress was engaged in a respected woman, who was also a mother of many children. The remains of the tailoring of the dress disassembled the young bride, it is believed that it will bring happiness in family life.
      Bride's dress

      In the Turkmen wedding, the girl's dress was always decorated with a large number of jewelry. They were sewn in the chest area, usually it was done not only for beauty, this location served as a talisman.
      When the bride went, the dress issued a characteristic ringing, it scared away the evil spirits that have always surrounded the girl, because they were amazed by her beauty. In Turkmenistan, the bride has always tried to protect from evil forces not only melodic sounds, but also a variety of amulets, such as braids of camel hair, pig teeth, and even on the hands of the bride wore protective bracelets. Thus, the wedding dress could weigh up to 40 kg.
      Place of celebration

      Often the wedding in Turkmenistan takes place in the groom's house, but it begins with the bride. They slaughter as many cattle as the groom's family will. Most often it was about 10 goals per family.
      On the solemn day to the bride came early in the morning girlfriend, they sang funny songs and escorted her into family life. Daughter-in-laws girls also sang songs, but the way they were humorous, they were discussing the various qualities of the groom. But his relatives, on the contrary, tried to praise him, and talked about the best traits.

      Was a comic tradition which talked about the fact that the bride have to put on the wedding robe-a Bathrobe. It was called "Puranic". All this happened before the arrival of the wedding caravan.
      Wedding Costs
      All funds that go to the wedding are provided by the groom's family. The tradition of bride price still exists today. In the modern Turkmen wedding it is also customary to give feces. In all regions it is different. It can range from three to ten thousand dollars.
      It is very expensive to play a traditional Turkmen wedding. Usually a large number of people are invited, even in the smallest villages it is not accepted to invite less than 300 people. After all, if someone is not invited, it will be resentment for the rest of your life. In large cities, the number of guests can reach thousands. Usually called the famous singer, who also need to pay, plus the cost of the toastmaster.
      Dowry for the bride
      Most often it includes gold jewelry. But not only they, also to the dowry are different types of fabric: velvet, satin and large scarves, they differ in size and color. Even there includes carpets, rugs, coats, and recently - even plasma TVs and other equipment and equipment.
      Preparation for the celebration
      According to the traditions of the Turkmen wedding, the young married for love. All preparation required considerable material and moral expenses. In rare cases, the bride was taken from distant relatives.
      If earlier permission from the girl was not asked, now the parents consult with their son or daughter, after which there is a matchmaking. Young people are allowed to see each other, to agree on any issues and the date of the wedding. Very important on a special day is the role of the priest, call him Mullah, he makes the engagement before the young go to the registry office.
      The Wedding Planner

      In the bridegroom's house is kind of chaos. Many guests also take part in the preparation. National dishes are prepared in the yard: pilaf, shurpa, baked Katlama and chelpek. After all, without these dishes, the Turkmen wedding will not be considered real.
      By this time, the groom is dressed in national clothes for the wedding: boots, Turkmen hat "silkme-telpek", belted with a sash. Only after that, with his close friends and relatives, he goes to the house to the bride in elegantly decorated cars.
      At this time, the bride is already dressed in her special outfit. There comes a time for redemption, then the young go to the registry office and to local attractions. It is mandatory to visit the "Eternal flame", where they lay flowers, leave coins and finally released into the sky pigeons. This is done for family happiness. For Europeans, this is also a common thing.
      The most interesting point is athula - a ceremony in which guests view the gifts and the bride's dowry. During the wedding, sweets are placed everywhere, coins and toys are scattered. Gifts for guests and relatives are also provided. Wedding jewelry of the bride is very hard, they can reach up to 30 kg Outfit it special, but after the wedding she turns into a woman.

      During the celebration, the couple sit with the guests, the girl's face is closed. But every time many people want to open it to see a little bit young. At the same time, wishes for a happy life are pronounced. After the guests have eaten, they leave the groom's house, and the heroes of the occasion go to the restaurant to continue the evening.
      In the evening, the young change into a more familiar modern outfit. Usually it is a black suit for the groom and a white dress for the bride. After the celebrations it is customary to cut the wedding cake, the couple is doing. The first pieces are given to parents, and only after that to all other guests. This is how a new family appears in Turkmenistan.
      Wedding is one of the most important events in life. You can see the Turkmen wedding in the photo in this article.
    • By Sophia in Culture
      It is no secret that the Caucasian holidays fascinate with their beauty, a large number of guests, beautiful dresses and a rich table. Gaumarjos – traditional Georgian wedding is currently held in compliance with ancient rules, although modern innovations have made their adjustments. The article will tell about how the newlyweds are now welcoming guests in this country.
      Old national customs and traditions
      It is now the Georgian wedding is preceded by an acquaintance of the future spouses. It used to be a custom when the groom stole his future wife. He may not have disappeared now and is still practising in distant mountain villages.
      To the parents of the girl almost never came back because her honor has been desecrated. In order not to cause discontent of neighbors and numerous relatives, parents had to take this step. Often women committed suicide because of unwillingness to marry the unloved. Of course, there are many cases when there was a strong and friendly family.
      Georgians are very hospitable people. On such a great holiday is still accepted to invite all relatives from the bride and groom. It is polite to accept. This causes offense, and can even put in a special book the names of people who did not share the joy of the family. That is why, following the tradition, Georgian wedding gathers a huge number of people.
      After the wedding night, the mother-in-law took out a sheet from a bed of newlyweds to prove chastity of the daughter-in-law. If the girl was not a virgin, she was thrown out in disgrace.
      On the wedding table, young put only sweets that none of the guests did see how the wife eats.
      Previously, the holiday, when a new family was formed, was celebrated only in the house of the bride or groom. Despite the fact that now a lot of European learned in the celebration, a lot of rituals left. But about them in order.
      This is the Georgian name for the first stage – matchmaking. Of course, now young themselves meet and choose a mate, but without the approval of the parents will not be a ceremony. There are exceptions, but children try to educate so that they listen to the opinion of elders.
      Here the rites of Georgian wedding are not much different from Russian. The groom must come to the bride's house with relatives to ask for her hand. The girl's parents meet matchmakers with a magnificent feast, during which the young man's side praises him. They should list all the positive aspects.

      Everyone is waiting for the appearance of the bride, who must give their consent to marry. And with a positive answer, the feast continues. Often even neighbors are involved in this process.
      Then the holiday is moved to the house of the future husband, where the table is also laid.
      As well as the Georgian wedding, preparation takes place to some days. It's time to get engaged to a young man and a girl.
      Taking with them a lot of gifts (it may even be just flowers, an expensive bottle of cognac and sweets), the groom's parents with him again visit the bride's house. On the table should be national dishes and a lot of wine, which should not end until the matchmakers at a party. Therefore, they are stocked in advance.
      Men and women before the feast are divided, discuss various topics. And now the guy is sitting next to his beloved. Everyone is waiting for the groom's father to stand up and make his toast, in which he will Express the joy of the upcoming kinship with the bride's parents. Only then will be presented with a beautiful ring future wife (sometimes a family heirloom, which passes from generation to generation). The fun doesn't end there. No one should be left out.
      During the talks, the financial and organizational aspects will be touched upon. Discuss the wedding venue. More often, almost everything has to pay for the groom's side.
      When the matchmakers gather, they are given khachapuri and various sweets.
      Bridal clothes
      Buying clothes also occurs according to tradition. So, for the Georgian wedding, the future husband buys beautiful clothes for the girl.
      The outfit should consist of two parts. A shirt with a collar is worn down. He shows modesty and innocence. From above there is a black or light-colored dress, which according to tradition should be richly embroidered, the sleeves have deep cuts. Bride necessarily girdled. Girlfriends braided a braid and put on a headdress with a veil - chikhti-mines or mandilias. The neck can be decorated with a beautiful necklace and pearl thread.

      The groom had previously picked up the outfit (us to make a chokha) bride. It consisted of a white shirt with a stand-up collar. On top was dark or light shade cloak, embroidered with gold, with satin lining. The groom was belted and unarmed. On feet - leather boots.

      Bride price
      This before the groom had to buy a bride, giving her parents livestock. Now it can be simple gifts that have prepared matchmakers for future relatives, and the ransom is more entertaining. It all depends on the well-being of the family.
      Since all the girls live in their parents ' house before the wedding, this ceremony takes place there. But in many areas of Georgia before the grooms could come and even live with the bride after the engagement.
      The bribery has always been modesty, chastity. It must be docile and, of course, economic.
      The time comes for the next stage - a beautiful Georgian wedding.
      First, the young undergo a mandatory ceremony – wedding. Previously, it was considered even more important than the stamp in the passport.
      It is from this moment that the Georgian wedding begins. In Georgia, very beautiful churches, and in the days of marriage, there is no squeeze. At the exit of the newlyweds will have to wait for a kind of arch, which are made of daggers friends of the groom. So they give protection to a new cell of society

      Then everyone goes to the registrar to legitimize their relationship. Now they began to often divide two events for two days.
      Then it is accepted by the whole tuple to drive through the streets, waving their arms. The horn sound is heard for several kilometers. So husband and wife share their happiness.
      Inspection of the new home
      After a traditional photo shoot, the guy takes his chosen one to get acquainted with his house.
      Before entering the obligatory rite - the young break the most beautiful plate for good luck. After the groom has to climb on the roof to set free the white bird.
      Wine is served. The first glass handed to her husband. Wife is at home, scattering at the corners of the grain of different cereals. Is considered, that this will bring in home wealth, and in the family - progeny. The symbol of the hearth is the cauldron, and the girl always touches it. Relatives put a pot of oil, around which she will walk three times.
      Wooden ornaments, which are presented to the young, represent the Tree of life. To kiss her husband, in the future, all you could hear was the sweet sayings, wife lubricate lips with honey.
      Followed by glasses of wine, the young say their vows. The groom throws the ring into his wine glass, takes a SIP, gives the bride to drink and puts this sign of marriage on the hand of his wife.
      This solemn part is completed.
      So called the feast itself at the Georgian wedding. Photos confirm the grandeur of the celebration, which can last for a week.
      Now because of a large number of guests remove expensive restaurants. The toastmaster is usually chosen from relatives. If the wedding tables are separated, then each entertain guests help assistants (friends of the groom). No one should get bored.

      On the tables are the most delicious treats. From aromas of ketupat, shish kebabs, eggplants simply reduce a stomach. Anyone would like to go to such a table. Such a variety of treats is not common:
      chikhirtma and tolma; satsivi and kuchmachi; ajapsandal and kababi; a lot of greens; various cheeses; vegetables and fruits; sweets. The main dish at the wedding was always soup.
      All tables are filled with traditional Georgian wines and cognacs, which help guests to say wonderful wishes. Every Georgian toast at the wedding for the newlyweds is filled with meaning. You will not hear "Bitterly!".

      Before leaving, the couple cut the cake, holding the knife with both hands. And the first piece of the groom carries the most respected guest.
      They even have something like a contest "Who will sit at the table longer?". Some families manage to celebrate until the morning. Hashi is waiting for them in the morning. This broth is specially cooked on the second day of beef stomachs and legs with garlic. They say it's a great hangover cure. After all, there are still a few days.
      Dancing and gifts
      All evening live music sounds and, of course, dancing begins. If the young invited professional dancers, it will be an amazing sight. We have all seen the graceful movements of girls and perfectly honed movements of these horsemen. Each wave of the hand or look has its own meaning.

      The bride should only dance with the groom or close relatives. But there comes a time when she performs her Georgian dance at the wedding, circling around the hall. Her guests give her money, which she manages at her discretion. Everyone is accepted to rejoice and dance. Also at the wedding in Georgia always heard folk songs.
      Give in celebration, the newlyweds decided expensive gifts. They must be signed. After the couple, opening gifts, special family record book, who and what gave. This is done in order to make a better purchase for the wedding of relatives. The most generous is even entered as honored guests of their home.
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