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  • MIMO Technology - What is MIMO (multiple input, multiple output)?

    MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output, multichannel input – multichannel output) – a method of coordinated use of multiple radio antennas in wireless network communications, common in modern home broadband routers and cellular networks LTE and WiMAX.

    Table of Contents

    How does it work?

    Wi-Fi routers with MIMO technology use the same network protocols as conventional single-channel routers. They provide better performance by improving the efficiency of wireless data transmission and reception. In particular, the network traffic between the clients and the router is organized into separate streams transmitted in parallel, with their subsequent recovery by the receiving device.

    MIMO technology can increase bandwidth, range, and transmission reliability with a high risk of interference from other wireless equipment.

    MIMO Technology - What is MIMO (multiple input, multiple output)?

    MIMO in Wi-Fi

    MIMO is included as standard with 802.11 n. It improves the performance and availability of network connections compared to conventional routers.

    The number of antennas may vary. For example, MIMO 2x2 provides two antennas and two transmitters capable of receiving and transmitting on two channels.

    To take advantage of this technology and realize its benefits, the client device and the router must establish a MIMO connection. The documentation for the hardware you are using should indicate whether it supports this feature. There is no other easy way to check if this technology is used in a network connection.


    The first generation of technology introduced in the 802.11 n standard supported the single-user (SU) method. Compared to traditional solutions, where all the antennas of the router need to be coordinated to communicate with one client device, SU-MIMO allows you to distribute each of them among different equipment.

    Multi-user (MU) MIMO technology was created for use in 802.11 ac Wi-Fi networks at 5 GHz. If the previous standard required routers to manage their client connections alternately (one at a time), MU-MIMO antennas can provide communication with multiple clients in parallel. The multi-user method improves the performance of connections. However, even if the 802.11 ac router has the necessary hardware support for MIMO, there are other limitations:

    • a limited number of simultaneous client connections (2-4) are supported depending on the antenna configuration;
    • antenna coordination is provided in only one direction – from the router to the client.


    MIMO and cellular

    The technology is used in different types of wireless networks. It is increasingly being used in cellular communications (4G and 5G) in several forms:

    • Network MIMO - coordinated signal transmission between base stations;
    • Massive MIMO - the use of a large number (hundreds) of antennas;
    • Millimeter waves - the use of microwave bands, in which the bandwidth is greater than in the bands licensed for 3G and 4G.

    Multi-user technology

    To understand how MU-MIMO works, you should consider how a traditional wireless router handles data packets. It does a good job of sending and receiving data, but only in one direction. In other words, it can only communicate with one device at a time. For example, if you're downloading a video, you can't stream an online video game to your console at the same time.

    The user can run multiple devices on a Wi-Fi network, and the router very quickly takes turns forwarding bits of data to them. However, at the same time, it can only access one device, which is the main reason for reducing the quality of the connection if the Wi-Fi bandwidth is too low.

    MIMO Technology

    Since it works, the attention is paid little. However, you can improve the performance of a router that sends data to multiple devices at the same time. At the same time, it will work faster and provide more interesting network configurations. That's why there were developments like MU-MIMO, which were eventually incorporated into modern wireless standards. These developments allow the advanced router to communicate with several devices at once.

    Brief history: SU-MIMO vs MU-MIMO

    Single-and multi-user MIMO is different ways of communicating routers with multiple devices. The first one is older. The SU standard allowed the sending and receiving of data on several streams at once, depending on the number of antennas available, each of which could work with different devices. SU was included in the 2007 802.11 n update and began to be gradually introduced into new product lines.

    However, SU-MIMO had limitations in addition to the antenna requirements. Although multiple devices can be connected, they still deal with a router that can only work with one at a time. Data rates have increased, interference has become less of a problem, but there is still much room for improvement.

    MU-MIMO is a standard that has evolved from SU-MIMO and SDMA (multiple access with spatial channel separation). The technology allows the base station to communicate with multiple devices using a separate thread for each of them as if they all have their own router.

    In the end, the MU support was added to upgrade to 802.11 ac in 2013 After several years of development, manufacturers began to include this feature in their products.


    Advantages of MU-MIMO

    It's fascinating technology because it has a significant impact on the everyday use of Wi-Fi without direct changes in throughput or other key parameters of the wireless connection. Networks are becoming much more efficient.

    To ensure a stable connection to a laptop, phone, tablet, or computer, the standard does not require multiple antennas on the router. Each such device may not share its MIMO channel with others. This is especially noticeable when streaming video or performing other complex tasks. The speed of the Internet subjectively increases, and the connection is established more reliable, although, in fact, it becomes more reasonable to organize the network. The number of simultaneously serviced devices is also increasing.

    MU-MIMO restrictions

    Multi-user multi-access technology has a number of limitations, which are worth mentioning. The existing standards support 4 devices but allow you to add more and they will have to share the stream, which brings back to the problems of SU-MIMO. The technology is mainly used in downlink and is limited when it comes to outbound. In addition, the mu-MIMO router must have more information about the devices and the state of the channels than the previous standards required. This makes it difficult to manage and troubleshoot wireless networks.

    MU-MIMO is also a directional technology. This means that 2 devices located side by side cannot use different channels at the same time. For example, if a husband is watching an online broadcast on TV and his wife is nearby streaming a PS4 game to their Vita via Remote Play, they'll still have to share bandwidth. The router can only provide discrete flows to devices that are located in different directions.

    MIMO Technology - What is MIMO (multiple input, multiple output)?

    Massive MIMO

    As we move towards fifth-generation (5G) wireless networks, the growth in the number of smartphones and new applications has led to a 100-fold increase in their required bandwidth compared to LTE. The new Massive MIMO technology, which has received a lot of attention in recent years, is designed to significantly increase the performance of telecommunication networks to unprecedented levels. With the scarcity and high cost of available resources, operators are attracted by the opportunity to increase bandwidth in frequency bands below 6 GHz.

    Despite significant progress, Massive MIMO is far from perfect. Technology is still being actively explored in both academia and industry, where engineers seek to achieve theoretical results through commercially acceptable solutions.

    Massive MIMO can help solve two key problems – bandwidth and coverage. For mobile operators, the frequency range remains a scarce and relatively expensive resource, but it is a key condition for increasing the speed of signal transmission. In cities, the interval between base stations is due to capacity rather than coverage, which requires the deployment of a large number of them and leads to additional costs. Massive MIMO allows you to increase the capacity of an existing network. In areas where the deployment of base stations is driven by coverage, the technology increases their range.

    MIMO Technology - What is MIMO (multiple input, multiple output)?


    Massive MIMO radically changes the current practice, using a very large number of coherent and adaptively operating 4G service antennas (hundreds or thousands). This helps to focus the transmission and reception of signal energy in smaller areas of space, greatly improving performance and energy efficiency, especially when combined with the simultaneous scheduling of a large number of user terminals (tens or hundreds). The method was originally intended for time-division duplex transmission (TDD), but can potentially also be used in the mode of duplex (PDD) frequency division.

    MIMO technology: advantages and disadvantages

    The advantages of the method are the widespread use of low-cost low-power components, reducing latency, simplifying the level of access control (MAC), resistance to accidental and intentional interference. The expected throughput depends on the propagation medium providing asymptotically orthogonal channels to the terminals, and experiments have so far revealed no limitations in this regard.

    However, along with the elimination of many problems, there are new ones that require urgent solutions. For example, in MIMO systems it is necessary to ensure effective collaboration of many inexpensive components of low accuracy, to collect data on the state of the channel and to allocate resources for the newly connected terminal. It is also necessary to use the additional degrees of freedom provided by the excess of service antennas, reduce internal power consumption to achieve overall energy efficiency and find new deployment scenarios.

    MIMO Technology - What is MIMO (multiple input, multiple output)?

    The increase in the number of 4G antennas involved in the MIMO implementation usually requires a visit to each base station to change configuration and wiring. The initial deployment of LTE networks required the installation of new hardware. This made it possible to configure the MIMO 2x2 of the original LTE standard. Further changes to base stations are made only in extreme cases, and higher-order implementations depend on the operating environment. Another problem is that the MIMO operation results in completely different behavior on the network than previous systems, which creates some scheduling uncertainty. Therefore, operators tend to use other developments first, especially if they can be deployed by updating the software.

    Edited by DeZire

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      Bride's dress

      In the Turkmen wedding, the girl's dress was always decorated with a large number of jewelry. They were sewn in the chest area, usually it was done not only for beauty, this location served as a talisman.
      When the bride went, the dress issued a characteristic ringing, it scared away the evil spirits that have always surrounded the girl, because they were amazed by her beauty. In Turkmenistan, the bride has always tried to protect from evil forces not only melodic sounds, but also a variety of amulets, such as braids of camel hair, pig teeth, and even on the hands of the bride wore protective bracelets. Thus, the wedding dress could weigh up to 40 kg.
      Place of celebration

      Often the wedding in Turkmenistan takes place in the groom's house, but it begins with the bride. They slaughter as many cattle as the groom's family will. Most often it was about 10 goals per family.
      On the solemn day to the bride came early in the morning girlfriend, they sang funny songs and escorted her into family life. Daughter-in-laws girls also sang songs, but the way they were humorous, they were discussing the various qualities of the groom. But his relatives, on the contrary, tried to praise him, and talked about the best traits.

      Was a comic tradition which talked about the fact that the bride have to put on the wedding robe-a Bathrobe. It was called "Puranic". All this happened before the arrival of the wedding caravan.
      Wedding Costs
      All funds that go to the wedding are provided by the groom's family. The tradition of bride price still exists today. In the modern Turkmen wedding it is also customary to give feces. In all regions it is different. It can range from three to ten thousand dollars.
      It is very expensive to play a traditional Turkmen wedding. Usually a large number of people are invited, even in the smallest villages it is not accepted to invite less than 300 people. After all, if someone is not invited, it will be resentment for the rest of your life. In large cities, the number of guests can reach thousands. Usually called the famous singer, who also need to pay, plus the cost of the toastmaster.
      Dowry for the bride
      Most often it includes gold jewelry. But not only they, also to the dowry are different types of fabric: velvet, satin and large scarves, they differ in size and color. Even there includes carpets, rugs, coats, and recently - even plasma TVs and other equipment and equipment.
      Preparation for the celebration
      According to the traditions of the Turkmen wedding, the young married for love. All preparation required considerable material and moral expenses. In rare cases, the bride was taken from distant relatives.
      If earlier permission from the girl was not asked, now the parents consult with their son or daughter, after which there is a matchmaking. Young people are allowed to see each other, to agree on any issues and the date of the wedding. Very important on a special day is the role of the priest, call him Mullah, he makes the engagement before the young go to the registry office.
      The Wedding Planner

      In the bridegroom's house is kind of chaos. Many guests also take part in the preparation. National dishes are prepared in the yard: pilaf, shurpa, baked Katlama and chelpek. After all, without these dishes, the Turkmen wedding will not be considered real.
      By this time, the groom is dressed in national clothes for the wedding: boots, Turkmen hat "silkme-telpek", belted with a sash. Only after that, with his close friends and relatives, he goes to the house to the bride in elegantly decorated cars.
      At this time, the bride is already dressed in her special outfit. There comes a time for redemption, then the young go to the registry office and to local attractions. It is mandatory to visit the "Eternal flame", where they lay flowers, leave coins and finally released into the sky pigeons. This is done for family happiness. For Europeans, this is also a common thing.
      The most interesting point is athula - a ceremony in which guests view the gifts and the bride's dowry. During the wedding, sweets are placed everywhere, coins and toys are scattered. Gifts for guests and relatives are also provided. Wedding jewelry of the bride is very hard, they can reach up to 30 kg Outfit it special, but after the wedding she turns into a woman.

      During the celebration, the couple sit with the guests, the girl's face is closed. But every time many people want to open it to see a little bit young. At the same time, wishes for a happy life are pronounced. After the guests have eaten, they leave the groom's house, and the heroes of the occasion go to the restaurant to continue the evening.
      In the evening, the young change into a more familiar modern outfit. Usually it is a black suit for the groom and a white dress for the bride. After the celebrations it is customary to cut the wedding cake, the couple is doing. The first pieces are given to parents, and only after that to all other guests. This is how a new family appears in Turkmenistan.
      Wedding is one of the most important events in life. You can see the Turkmen wedding in the photo in this article.
    • By Sophia in Culture
      It is no secret that the Caucasian holidays fascinate with their beauty, a large number of guests, beautiful dresses and a rich table. Gaumarjos – traditional Georgian wedding is currently held in compliance with ancient rules, although modern innovations have made their adjustments. The article will tell about how the newlyweds are now welcoming guests in this country.
      Old national customs and traditions
      It is now the Georgian wedding is preceded by an acquaintance of the future spouses. It used to be a custom when the groom stole his future wife. He may not have disappeared now and is still practising in distant mountain villages.
      To the parents of the girl almost never came back because her honor has been desecrated. In order not to cause discontent of neighbors and numerous relatives, parents had to take this step. Often women committed suicide because of unwillingness to marry the unloved. Of course, there are many cases when there was a strong and friendly family.
      Georgians are very hospitable people. On such a great holiday is still accepted to invite all relatives from the bride and groom. It is polite to accept. This causes offense, and can even put in a special book the names of people who did not share the joy of the family. That is why, following the tradition, Georgian wedding gathers a huge number of people.
      After the wedding night, the mother-in-law took out a sheet from a bed of newlyweds to prove chastity of the daughter-in-law. If the girl was not a virgin, she was thrown out in disgrace.
      On the wedding table, young put only sweets that none of the guests did see how the wife eats.
      Previously, the holiday, when a new family was formed, was celebrated only in the house of the bride or groom. Despite the fact that now a lot of European learned in the celebration, a lot of rituals left. But about them in order.
      This is the Georgian name for the first stage – matchmaking. Of course, now young themselves meet and choose a mate, but without the approval of the parents will not be a ceremony. There are exceptions, but children try to educate so that they listen to the opinion of elders.
      Here the rites of Georgian wedding are not much different from Russian. The groom must come to the bride's house with relatives to ask for her hand. The girl's parents meet matchmakers with a magnificent feast, during which the young man's side praises him. They should list all the positive aspects.

      Everyone is waiting for the appearance of the bride, who must give their consent to marry. And with a positive answer, the feast continues. Often even neighbors are involved in this process.
      Then the holiday is moved to the house of the future husband, where the table is also laid.
      As well as the Georgian wedding, preparation takes place to some days. It's time to get engaged to a young man and a girl.
      Taking with them a lot of gifts (it may even be just flowers, an expensive bottle of cognac and sweets), the groom's parents with him again visit the bride's house. On the table should be national dishes and a lot of wine, which should not end until the matchmakers at a party. Therefore, they are stocked in advance.
      Men and women before the feast are divided, discuss various topics. And now the guy is sitting next to his beloved. Everyone is waiting for the groom's father to stand up and make his toast, in which he will Express the joy of the upcoming kinship with the bride's parents. Only then will be presented with a beautiful ring future wife (sometimes a family heirloom, which passes from generation to generation). The fun doesn't end there. No one should be left out.
      During the talks, the financial and organizational aspects will be touched upon. Discuss the wedding venue. More often, almost everything has to pay for the groom's side.
      When the matchmakers gather, they are given khachapuri and various sweets.
      Bridal clothes
      Buying clothes also occurs according to tradition. So, for the Georgian wedding, the future husband buys beautiful clothes for the girl.
      The outfit should consist of two parts. A shirt with a collar is worn down. He shows modesty and innocence. From above there is a black or light-colored dress, which according to tradition should be richly embroidered, the sleeves have deep cuts. Bride necessarily girdled. Girlfriends braided a braid and put on a headdress with a veil - chikhti-mines or mandilias. The neck can be decorated with a beautiful necklace and pearl thread.

      The groom had previously picked up the outfit (us to make a chokha) bride. It consisted of a white shirt with a stand-up collar. On top was dark or light shade cloak, embroidered with gold, with satin lining. The groom was belted and unarmed. On feet - leather boots.

      Bride price
      This before the groom had to buy a bride, giving her parents livestock. Now it can be simple gifts that have prepared matchmakers for future relatives, and the ransom is more entertaining. It all depends on the well-being of the family.
      Since all the girls live in their parents ' house before the wedding, this ceremony takes place there. But in many areas of Georgia before the grooms could come and even live with the bride after the engagement.
      The bribery has always been modesty, chastity. It must be docile and, of course, economic.
      The time comes for the next stage - a beautiful Georgian wedding.
      First, the young undergo a mandatory ceremony – wedding. Previously, it was considered even more important than the stamp in the passport.
      It is from this moment that the Georgian wedding begins. In Georgia, very beautiful churches, and in the days of marriage, there is no squeeze. At the exit of the newlyweds will have to wait for a kind of arch, which are made of daggers friends of the groom. So they give protection to a new cell of society

      Then everyone goes to the registrar to legitimize their relationship. Now they began to often divide two events for two days.
      Then it is accepted by the whole tuple to drive through the streets, waving their arms. The horn sound is heard for several kilometers. So husband and wife share their happiness.
      Inspection of the new home
      After a traditional photo shoot, the guy takes his chosen one to get acquainted with his house.
      Before entering the obligatory rite - the young break the most beautiful plate for good luck. After the groom has to climb on the roof to set free the white bird.
      Wine is served. The first glass handed to her husband. Wife is at home, scattering at the corners of the grain of different cereals. Is considered, that this will bring in home wealth, and in the family - progeny. The symbol of the hearth is the cauldron, and the girl always touches it. Relatives put a pot of oil, around which she will walk three times.
      Wooden ornaments, which are presented to the young, represent the Tree of life. To kiss her husband, in the future, all you could hear was the sweet sayings, wife lubricate lips with honey.
      Followed by glasses of wine, the young say their vows. The groom throws the ring into his wine glass, takes a SIP, gives the bride to drink and puts this sign of marriage on the hand of his wife.
      This solemn part is completed.
      So called the feast itself at the Georgian wedding. Photos confirm the grandeur of the celebration, which can last for a week.
      Now because of a large number of guests remove expensive restaurants. The toastmaster is usually chosen from relatives. If the wedding tables are separated, then each entertain guests help assistants (friends of the groom). No one should get bored.

      On the tables are the most delicious treats. From aromas of ketupat, shish kebabs, eggplants simply reduce a stomach. Anyone would like to go to such a table. Such a variety of treats is not common:
      chikhirtma and tolma; satsivi and kuchmachi; ajapsandal and kababi; a lot of greens; various cheeses; vegetables and fruits; sweets. The main dish at the wedding was always soup.
      All tables are filled with traditional Georgian wines and cognacs, which help guests to say wonderful wishes. Every Georgian toast at the wedding for the newlyweds is filled with meaning. You will not hear "Bitterly!".

      Before leaving, the couple cut the cake, holding the knife with both hands. And the first piece of the groom carries the most respected guest.
      They even have something like a contest "Who will sit at the table longer?". Some families manage to celebrate until the morning. Hashi is waiting for them in the morning. This broth is specially cooked on the second day of beef stomachs and legs with garlic. They say it's a great hangover cure. After all, there are still a few days.
      Dancing and gifts
      All evening live music sounds and, of course, dancing begins. If the young invited professional dancers, it will be an amazing sight. We have all seen the graceful movements of girls and perfectly honed movements of these horsemen. Each wave of the hand or look has its own meaning.

      The bride should only dance with the groom or close relatives. But there comes a time when she performs her Georgian dance at the wedding, circling around the hall. Her guests give her money, which she manages at her discretion. Everyone is accepted to rejoice and dance. Also at the wedding in Georgia always heard folk songs.
      Give in celebration, the newlyweds decided expensive gifts. They must be signed. After the couple, opening gifts, special family record book, who and what gave. This is done in order to make a better purchase for the wedding of relatives. The most generous is even entered as honored guests of their home.
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