5G, the next-generation communication standard, will support the Internet of things, smart cars, and other technology. The new mobile standard will not be available until 2020, but the relevant specifications are being developed at full speed, and it becomes clear that the 5g standard will be significantly different from 4G. We are talking about increasing the speed of information exchange for mobile phones and tablets and a variety of other solutions, each with its own requirements.
Predictions from Ericsson
How 5G technology will work and why it is needed if the ultra-fast mobile Internet exists now?
According to Ericsson, the future looks like this.
Unmanned and networked vehicles will share information with each other. In the event of an accident, the car closest to the scene of the accident will report it to all cars following it. This will allow them to reduce the speed in advance or, in the case of traffic jams, to calculate a new route.
Vehicle sensors will measure weather conditions more accurately and send data via the 5G network so that the vehicle calculates the best driving route.
In the field of public transport, the 5G network will allow real-time tracking of the number of waiting for passengers at stops. The bus driver will miss the stop without passengers, and the Manager will send additional transport to their places of congestion.
In the 5g era, all home electronics will be interconnected. If earlier when moving from one room to another had to carry a portable device to continue, for example, to listen to your favorite radio station, now the speakers in different rooms will contact each other, and listening will continue from the interrupted place. In addition, it will be possible to monitor the energy consumption of each device or find out how much electricity is produced by solar panels.
The 5G network will change emergency services, providing reliable emergency communications and prioritizing police and emergency communications. And firefighters in helmets with cameras will broadcast the image to command and receive help in difficult rescue operations.
5G - Technology
In the past, we managed to streamline most of them, but the selection of technologies that ensure their practical application continues.
- ultra-high frequencies, which previously seemed impossible to achieve, will provide much greater speed;
- developing systems, sending data in tiny parts, will extend the work of the Internet of things devices for many years;
- reducing delays for tasks that require an immediate response.
5G - Network Speed
Evaluation of the increase in the speed of the standard 5G compared to the previous is ambiguous. Ericsson managed to achieve growth in 50 times - to 5 Gbit/s. Samsung reached the figure of 7.5 GB/s with a strong signal of 1.2 Gbps in moving at the high-speed cars. The EU – China partnership intends to increase the speed of 5G by 100 times. NTT DoCoMo, a Japanese mobile operator, together with Alcatel-Lucent, Ericsson, Samsung, and Nokia is trying to reach 10 Gbit/s. and scientists from the University of Surrey suggest a speed of 1 Tbit/s. It is expected that over the next 10 years the speed of mobile networks will grow a thousand times.
The increase in speed will require better antennas and equipment, as well as an expanded frequency spectrum. In the US, the process of allocating this resource has already begun.
Internet of Things
With lower connection costs, more devices have access to Wi-Fi. The concept of combining phones, coffee and washing machines, headphones, lamps and everything else into a single network is called the Internet of things. By 2020, it is expected that there will be more than 26 billion such devices in the world. And the number of connections will be even greater.
The ability of things to "feel" with the help of sensors and remotely run commands can be used in urban planning, technology, smart homes, control systems of heat and electricity, security, health, public transport, retelling.
The Internet of things requires a small connection speed, but for a huge number of devices. Already operate a dedicated network that uses a narrow frequency band, and the developers of the 5G standard want to take part in this process. Thus, telecommunication networks will have to support not only mobile users but also "smart" things. The management of such heterogeneous traffic is called upon to come to the aid of a new standard.
Obviously, the next generation 5g network will support unmanned vehicle technology and augmented reality applications. In this case, the information should be received in real-time. The time of reception and transmission in 4G networks exceeds 10 MS, which is very much. The future standard can completely change the network architecture by moving data storage from data centers to end nodes, including smart devices.
A moving car, for example, requires information about the location of the nearest vehicle. Existing networks with the flow of such data for three cars cannot cope. Large data transfer delays require local data allocation.
It is assumed that the responsiveness of the next generation of networks will be the maximum. The delay in data transmission will not exceed 1 MS, even if the speed of the terminal 500 km/h. This latency will be the main driving factor in the creation of new technologies, such as driving in city traffic surgery a distance.
If the situation with the definition of the range of potential technologies in 2015 has improved, the technology itself is still being developed. It is necessary to determine which 5g technologies are needed first and which will be implemented after.
Despite the lack of standard and confidence in the priority of technologies, manufacturing companies are trying to lead the development and implementation of 5G technologies to take a profitable position in the future.
Nokia in April 2015 announced the acquisition of Alcatel-Lucent for 16.6 billion us dollars, and the US telecommunications company Verizon Wireless said that the first 5G-network in the US will appear in 2016.
Prototypes of 5G networks have already appeared. The first 5G network was launched in South Korea. SK Telecom introduced the new technology at the opening of the research center, which will be engaged in its development. And by the XXIII winter Olympic games 2018 in South Korea, the company plans to build a 5g network across the country.
NTT DoCoMo also intends to launch a 5G network in Japan for the 2020 summer Olympics in Tokyo.
5G network against the United States
Like previous standards, the 5g standard is developed by the 3GPP consortium and approved by ITU, the International Telecommunication Union. Don't want to stay on the sidelines and manufacturers. In October 2015, some regional groups agreed to meet every six months to develop a common position on the 5g standard.
A similar agreement was reached in September 2015 between the EU and China. Ericsson and TeliaSonera reached a strategic partnership agreement to provide mobile operator customers in Tallinn and Stockholm with access to the 5G network in 2018.
As can be seen, the countries of the world agree on cooperation in this area. All, except the United States, accustomed to occupying a leading position in everything.
4.5G preparing for the future
Qualcomm has offered 4.5 G LTE Advanced Pro technology, which is planned to be implemented over the next four years. This enables the company to support both the wider range of frequencies required by the 5G standard and previously deployed LTE networks, which will reduce latency and increase throughput.
Features of the network:
- High throughput by combining the spectra of frequency;
- support 32 operators at the same time and increase throughput by combining the frequency and distribution of network traffic between operators;
- a 10-fold reduction in latency compared to LTE Advanced when using existing towers and frequencies from 1 MS to 70 MS;
- the use of the resource of the incoming communication lines to outgoing needs;
- increasing the number of antennas on base stations to increase coverage and signal strength;
- increase energy saving of IoT devices by narrowing the range to 1.4 MHz and 180 kHz (up to 10 years on a single battery);
- 1 Gbit/s for information exchange between cars, pedestrians, and IoT devices;
- scanning the environment without turning on Wi-Fi or GPS on a mobile device.
Fraunhofer Institute of telecommunications in Berlin conducts experiments with frequencies of 40-100 GHz, Samsung uses in its experiments the frequency of 28 GHz, and Nokia – more than 70 GHz.
The operation of devices in the millimeter-wave range has such a feature as extremely poor signal propagation, the power of which falls significantly with the distance from the base station. In addition, signal interference can be caused even by the human body.
The output is the use of technology MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) when send and receive multiple signals simultaneously. Now it is used for LTE and WLAN. For high frequencies, Massive MIMO – technology of reception optimization is used, when dozens of small antennas are placed in mobile devices and hundreds – in the transmitter.
Manufacturer of antennas, SkyCross has created a system of 4x4 MIMO, which can be used in terminal size 16x10 cm Is much larger than antennas for LTE. For example, the size of the LG G4 15x7,6 cm, Samsung Galaxy S6 - 14x7 cm, while the Apple iPhone 6 Plus – 16х7,8 see the 4x4 MIMO System is not new – except the terminals are LTE-Advanced, it is used in satellite television systems, stringent requirements for size and power consumption will be charged. Thus, the creation of a small mobile device with 4 antennas will be a test for designers.
The development of portable terminals will also require a lot of effort. According to the representative of Texas Instrument, the creation of chips capable of transmitting data at high frequencies will require the use of new technologies. In 2015, the project to create the 5g standard was officially named IMT-2020. It is a pity that the rest is still not seen at the end of the process.
Edited by DeZire